Lexicon: Definitions


Appropriation: helps to understand embedded messages the author conveys to the audience (Guide to First-Year Writing, 336)

Aural Mode: Focuses on sound. (Arola Ball Unit 2 Reading)

Close Reading: a path to critical thinking, is also called efferent reading. There are several elements to close reading, including: Learn about the author, Skim the text (a first read), Explore your preliminary beliefs on the subject, Annotate the text, Outline the text and Free-write and summarize the text (Rose, pp “31 January 2018”)

Critical Thinking: is the act of objectively weighing information and evidence surrounding an issue in order to form an independent opinion or conclusion (Rose, pp “31 January 2018”)

Cultural Specificity: inherent cultural bias in the creating and reading of texts (Guide to First-Year Writing, 329)

Discourse Community: a group of people who share both a purpose and means of communicating


Gestural Mode: Refers to the way movement, such as body language, can make meaning. (Arola Ball Unit 2 Reading)

Graffiti: comes from the Greek word graphein meaning to write

Hyperliterate: images act as a kind of shorthand- conveying a great deal of information in a flash for an information- saturated populace (Guide to First-Year Writing, 328)

lnfotention: Attention to Information


Lexicon: a book of language: lexis- (words) and legion (to speak). (Rose, pp “31 January 2018”)

Linguistic Mode: Refers to the use of language, which usually means written or spoken word. (Arola Ball Unit 2 Reading)

Material Culture: the physical objects, such as tools, domestic articles, or religious objects, which give evidence of the type of culture developed by a society or group (Oxford Dictionary)

Multimodal: Mashup of multiple and mode. A mode is a way of communicating. Multimodal describes how we combine multiple different ways of communicating in everyday life. (Arola Ball Unit 2 Reading)

Multimodality: The use or availability of several different modes, methods, systems, etc. (Oxford English Dictionary)

Parody: replicates aspects of the original that make the reference recognizable while creating a satirical or humorous effect (Guide to First-Year Writing, 326)

Primary Research: any type of research that you collect yourself (Owl Purdue)

Prowian Analysis: is the first part of what has become known as the “Prownian Method,” a means of identifying, analyzing and categorizing objects in Historical Archaeology.


Secondary Research: any type of data you collect using existing data. (Owl Purdue)

Spatial Mode: Is about physical arrangement and can include how a brochure opens and the way it leads a reader through the text. (Arola Ball Unit 2 Reading)

Thesis: statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved. (Oxford Living Dictionary)

Thick Description: intensive, small-scale, dense descriptions of social life from observation, through which broader cultural interpretations and generalizations can be made


Visual Mode: Refers to the use of images and other characteristics that readers see. (Arola Ball Unit 2 Reading)

Two major factors that have transformed the form and content of the visual images we produce today are reproducibility and malleability (Guide to Firs-Year Writing, 331)